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Wednesday, February 15, 2006


The postage stamps and postal history of the Indian states is a complicated subject, British rule was not a uniform exercise of authority, and many states ran their own postal services. The two main categories were the convention states who had agreements with British India regarding mail, and the feudatory states who ran their own posts, and whose stamps were only valid within their borders. The convention states all used contemporaneous stamps of India, overprinted with the name of the state, in Latin letters or Hindu letters or both, depending on state and period. The convention states were:
Faridkot (formerly feudatory, convention from 1887)
Patiala The stamps of the convention states all became invalid 1 January 1950. India had a great many feudatory states, but not all issued stamps. In some states the stamps served a legitimate purpose, but in others the stamps were issued more to please the rulers vanity, and normal mail was franked with British Indias stamps. The feudatory states issuing stamps were (the dates are the starting and ending dates of stamp issuance):
Alwar (1877-1899)
Bamra (1888-1893)
Barwani (1921-1938)
Bhopal (1876-1932)
Bhor (1879-1901)
Bijawar (1935-1937)
Bundi (1894-1941)
Bussahir (1895-1900)
Charkhari (1894-1943)
Kochi, India (1892-1933)
Dhar (1897-1898)
Duttia (1893-1916)
Faridkot (1879-1900)
Hyderabad state (1869-1949)
Idar (1939-1944)
Indore (1886-1941)
Jaipur (1900-1947)
Jammu and Kashmir (1878-1886)
Jammu (1866-1877)
Kashmir (1866-1867)
Jasdan (1942-1942)
Jhalawar (1887-1887)
Kishangarh (1899-1928)
Las Bela (1897-1904)
Morvi (1931-1935)
Nandgaon (1892-1893)
Nowanuggur (1877-1893)
Orchha (1913-1939)
Poonch (1876-1884)
Rajasthan (1949-1949)
Rajpeepla (1880)
Sirmoor (1879-1899)
Soruth (1864-1937)
Travancore (1888-1946)
Travancore-Cochin (1949-1950)
Wadhwan (1888-1889) Since the stamps of the feudatory states were generally crude productions by local printers, and were later extensively forged, they are a challenging area for stamp collecting.

Tuesday, February 14, 2006


Timothy Thomas Powers (born February 29, 1952) is an American fantasy fiction author. His works are mostly notable for being secret histories - he uses actual, documented historical events, but shows another view of them, in which magic is a major moving force in the motivations and actions of the characters. Powers also suffered from alcoholism for several years, a struggle reflected in many of his characters. Powers was born in Buffalo, New York, and grew up in California, where his family moved in 1959. He studied English Literature at California State University, Fullerton, where he first met James Blaylock and K. W. Jeter, both of whom remained close friends. Another friend he first met during this period (but not, unlike Blaylock and Jeter, a fellow student) was Philip K. Dick, a character in Dicks novel VALIS is based on Powers. Powers and James Blaylock invented the poet William Ashbless while they were at Cal State Fullerton. His first major novel was The Drawing of the Dark (1979), but the novel that put him on the map was his next, The Anubis Gates, which (appropriately) won the Philip K. Dick Memorial Award. Powers is currently living in Muscoy, California.


Epitaph in Rust
The Skies Discrowned, also published as Forsake The Sky
The Drawing of the Dark - The siege of Vienna was actually a struggle between Muslim and Christian magicians over the spiritual heart of the West, which happens to be a small inn and brewery in Vienna. The dark of the title is a beer that has been brewing for centuries, which the Fisher King will eventually drink.
The Anubis Gates - A time travel story set in 1810 featuring magic, Egyptian gods and a werewolf.
Dinner at Deviants Palace - unusually for Powers, this is set in the future, in a postatomic America in which an alien psychic vampire is slowly taking over.
On Stranger Tides moves to the 17th century Caribbean, with pirates (many of them real historical characters), Voodoo, zombies, Juan Ponce de Leon, and a strangely quantum-mechanical Fountain of Youth.
The Stress of Her Regard - concerning the dealings of the Romanticism - Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley are major characters - with vampire-like creatures from Greek mythology.
Last Call (novel) - a professional poker player finds out that he lost far more than he won in a game played with Tarot cards twenty years ago.
Expiration Date - a boy possessed by the spirit of Thomas Edison is hunted through Los Angeles, California by people wanting to consume the ghost he carries.
Earthquake Weather - sequel to both Last Call and Expiration Date, involving the characters of both, two fugitives from a psychiatric hospital, the magic (paranormal) nature of multiple personality disorder, and the secret history of wine production in California.
Declare - a Cold War espionage story involving Genie, Mount Ararat, and the Epic of Gilgamesh.


The following tables show the Esperanto pronunciation. Each letter in the Esperanto alphabet, and each pair of letters representing a diphthong, is transliterated into English language and the International Phonetic Alphabet.

Single letters

a ah IPA a
b b IPA b
c ts IPA
ch IPA
d d IPA d
e eh IPA e
f f IPA f
g hard g (as in go) IPA g
h h IPA h
loch IPA x
i ee IPA i
j y IPA j
zh IPA
k k IPA k
l l IPA l
m m IPA m
n n IPA n
o oh IPA o
p p IPA p
r r IPA, r
s s IPAs
sh IPA
t t IPA t
u oo IPA u
w IPA w
v v IPA v
z z IPA z


aj eye IPA a
a now IPA a
ej pain IPA e
e - IPA e
oj toy IPA
uj booey IPA u

Monday, February 13, 2006


Agehananda Bharati (Vienna April 20, 1923- New York May 14, 1991) was the monastic name of Leopold Fischer. He was a respected academic Sanskrit, a prolific author about religious subjects, and a Hindu monk in the Dasanami Sannyasi Order-%28religious%29.


Agehananda Bharati, The Tantric Tradition, (The Hutchinson University Publishers, 1966)
Agehananda Bharati, The Ochre Robe, (Ross-Erikson Press, 1980). Autobiography, very enjoyable.
Agehananda Bharati, A Functional Analysis of Indian Thought and its Social Margins
Agehananda Bharati, The Light at the Center: Context and Pretext of Modern Mysticism, (Santa Barbara: Ross-Erikson Press, 1976) ISBN 091552044


Taxobox-begin color lightgreen name Sweet Potato Taxobox-image image caption Taxobox-begin-placement color lightgreen Taxobox-regnum-entry taxon Plantae Taxobox-divisio-entry taxon flowering plants Taxobox-classis-entry taxon dicotyledon Taxobox-ordo-entry taxon Solanales Taxobox-familia-entry taxon Convolvulaceae Taxobox-genus-entry taxon Ipomoea Taxobox-species-entry taxon batatas Taxobox-end-placement Taxobox-section-binomial color lightgreen binomial-name Ipomoea batatas author Carolus Linnaeus date Taxobox-end The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a crop plant whose large, starchy, sweet-tasting tuberous roots are an important root vegetable. The young leaves and shoots are minor vegetables. Another name commonly applied to orange-fleshed varieties of sweet potatoes in the United States is yam. Most botany consider this an erroneous name since there are already other vegetables called yams (genus Dioscorea), which are not botanically related to the sweet potato. The sweet potato is also not particularly related to regular potato, which is sometimes called Irish potato to distinguish it. Those two plants are in different family (biology). The genus Ipomoea that contains the sweet potato also includes several garden flowers called morning glory, though that term is not usually extended to Ipomoea batatas. Some variants of Ipomoea batatas are grown as houseplants.


The edible root is long and tapered, with a smooth skin. Its flesh ranges from white to yellow, orange, or purple. All varieties are more-or-less sweet-flavored. The storage root is not actually a tuber even though it looks like one, since it develops from root tissue, rather than stem tissue as true tubers do. Some botanists describe it as a tuberous root. Under optimal conditions of 85 90% relative humidity at 13 16�C, sweet potatoes can keep for six months. Colder temperatures injure the roots. Sweet potatoes are rich in dietary fiber, vitamin C and pyridoxine. In some tropical areas they are a staple food crop. The storage roots, leaf and shoots are all edible. The storage roots are most frequently boiled, fried or baked. They can also be processed to make starch and a partial flour substitute. All parts of the plant are used for animal feed. Industrial uses include the production of starch and industrial alcohol.


The plant is an perennial vine that does not tolerate frost. It grows best at an average temperature of 24�C. Depending on the variety and conditions, tuberous roots mature in 2 9 months. With care, early-maturing varieties can be grown as an annual summer crop in temperate climate areas, such as the northern USA. Sweet potatoes rarely flower when the daylight is longer than 11 hours, as is normal outside of the tropics. They are mostly propagated by stem or root cuttings or by adventitious roots called slips that grow out from the tuberous roots during storage. True seeds are used for breeding only.

Production statistics

According to FAO, 98% of world sweet potato production occurred in developing country in 1994. China alone made up 84% of the harvest, producing about 105,000 tonnes on 65 km�. Though sweet potato production in the United States is minuscule compared to the world total, it is important regionally. The U.S. Southern states are a traditional sweet-potato-producing area. Marketers there use the term yam sweet potato to distinguish moist-fleshed, orange varieties of sweet potato from drier, white varieties. The yam is nearly unknown in the USA except as an import sold in ethnic markets.


Sweet potatoes are believed to have originated in South America and spread throughout the tropical Americas into the Caribbean and across the South Pacific to Easter Island. Very likely the tuber drifted across the sea just as coconuts and some other plants still do today. Because the general Polynesian word for the sweet potato is kumara, and the South American word is kumar, it was originally thought that this was evidence of cross-Pacific contact between South America and Polynesia. However, linguists have determined that kumara and kumar are totally unrelated and have nothing to do with each other. This therefore cannot be considered as evidence of pre-Ferdinand Magellan trans-Pacific crossings.

Other meanings of the term sweet potato

Sweet potato is also a nickname for the ocarina, a wind instrument.

Sunday, February 12, 2006


The Scullin Ministry was the twentieth Australian Commonwealth ministries 1901-2004, and ran from 22nd October 1929 to 6th January 1932. Australian Labor Party
Rt Hon James Scullin, MP: Prime Minister, Minister for External Affairs, Minister for Industry. Treasurer (9 June 1930 to 29 January 1931)
Hon Ted Theodore, MP: Treasurer (to 9 June 1930 and from 29 January 1931)
Senator Hon John Daly (Australian politician): Vice-President of the Executive Council (to 3 March 1931), Minister for Defence (4 February 1931 to 3 March 1931), Assistant Minister (from 26 June 1931)
Hon Frank Brennan, MP: Attorney-General
Hon Joseph Lyons, MP: Postmaster-General, Minister for Works and Railways (to 4 February 1931)
Hon James Fenton (politician), MP: Minister for Trade and Customs (to 4 February 1931)
Hon Arthur Blakeley, MP: Minister for Home Affairs
Hon Frank Anstey, MP: Minister for Health, Minister for Repatriation (to 3 March 1931)
Hon Albert Green, MP: Minister for Defence (to 4 February 1931), Postmaster-General (from 4 February 1931)
Hon Parker Moloney, MP: Minister for Markets and Transport (to 21 April 1930). Minister for Markets, Minister for Transport (from 21 April 1930)
Senator Hon John Barnes (Australian politician): Assistant Minister (to 3 March 1931), Vice-President of the Executive Council (from 3 March 1931)
Hon Frank Forde, MP: Assistant Minister (to 4 February 1931), Minister for Trade and Customs (from 4 February 1931)
Hon John Beasley, MP: Assistant Minister (to 3 March 1931)
Hon John McNeill, MP: Minister for Health, Minister for Repatriation (from 3 March 1931)
Hon Ben Chifley, MP: Minister for Defence (from 3 March 1931)
Senator Hon John Dooley: Assistant Minister (from 3 March 1931)
Hon Ted Holloway, MP: Assistant Minister (3 March 1931 to 12 June 1931)
Hon Charles Culley, MP: Assistant Minister (3 March 1931 to 24 June 1931)
Hon Lou Cunningham, MP: Assistant Minister (from 26 June 1931)


There is also the Tuskegee Airmen, a corps of African-American military pilots trained there during World War II Tuskegee University is an American institution of higher learning located in Tuskegee, Alabama, Alabama. The school opened on July 4, 1881 under the leadership of Booker T. Washington as a school for the training of teachers. The campus is still centered on the grounds of a plantation which Dr. Washington bought in 1882. The buildings were constructed by students, many of whom earned all or part of their expenses. The school was a living example of Dr. Washingtons dedication to the pursuit of self-reliance. One of his great concerns was to teach African-American former slaves the practical skills needed to succeed at farming or other trades. One of its most noteworthy professors was Dr. George Washington Carver, who was recruited to teach there by Dr. Washington. Washington had his students do not only agricultural and domestic work, but also erect buildings. This was done in order to teach his students to see labor not only as practical, but also as beautiful and dignified. In 1941, in an effort to train black aviators, a training squadron was established at Tuskegee Institute. These aviators became known as the Tuskegee Airmen. Claude McKay studied at the University briefly in 1912. Musician Lionel Richie is a Tuskegee graduate. The Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site is located on the campus, and includes the George Washington Carver Museum.

Saturday, February 11, 2006


Manali, (alt. 1,950 m or 6,398 ft), an important hill station in the mountains of Himachal Pradesh, India, near the northern end of the Kullu Valley. It is administratively part of the Kullu District. The population is approx. 30,000. It was the beginning of an ancient trade route to Ladakh and, from there, over the Karakoram Pass on to Yarkand and Khotan in the Tarim Basin. It is a popular Himalaya tourist destination. It offers hot springs, spectacular religious shrines and temples, Tibetan Buddhist temples, and trekking in the surrounding mountains.


Verma, V. 1996. Gaddis of Dhauladhar: A Transhumant Tribe of the Himalayas. Indus Publishing Co., New Delhi.
Handa, O. C. 1987. Buddhist Monasteries in Himachel Pradesh. Indus Publishing Co., New Delhi. ISBN 81-85182-03-5. Manali is also the name of an old district of Armenia c. 400-800 Caucasus-geo-stub


Taxobox-begin color pink name Sawfish StatusEndangered Taxobox-image image caption Sketching of a Sawfish Taxobox-begin-placement color pink Taxobox-regnum-entry taxon Animalia Taxobox-phylum-entry taxon Chordate Taxobox-classis-entry taxon Chondrichthyes Taxobox-ordo-entry taxon Pristiformes Taxobox-familia-entry taxon Pristidae Taxobox-end-placement Taxobox-section-subdivision color pink plural-taxon Species Anoxypristis cuspidata
Pristis clavata
Pristis microdon
Pristis pectinata
Pristis perotteti
Pristis zijsron
Pristis pristis
Taxobox-end Sawfish are related to sharks and ray (fish)s. Their most striking appearance is a long, toothy snout. They possess a cartilaginous skeleton and no swim bladder. They are the sole family Pristidae of the order Pristiformes. Their name comes from the Greek word pristis, for saw. They are not to be confused with the sawshark, which is also in the order Chondrichthyes and bears a similar physical appearance.

Physical Characteristics

The most eye-catching feature of the sawfish is of course, their saw-like snout, called a rostrum. The rostrum is covered with motion and electro-sensitive pores that allow sawfishes to detect movement and even heartbeats of buried prey in the ocean floor. The rostrum acts like a metal detector as the sawfish hovers over the bottom, looking for hidden food. It has also been used as a digging tool to unearth buried crustaceans. When a suitable prey swims by, the normally lethargic sawfish will spring from the bottom and slash at it furiously with its saw. This generally stuns or injures the prey sufficiently for the sawfish to devour it without much resistance. Sawfishes have also been known to defend themselves with their rostrum, against predators (like sharks) and intruding divers. The teeth protruding from the rostrum are not real teeth, but modified Scale (zoology). Due to the appearance of the fish, sawfishes are sometimes called Sharks with Swords. The body and head of a sawfish is flat as they spend most of their time lying on the sea floor. Like rays, the sawfishs mouth and nares are located on its flat underside. The mouth is lined with small, dome-shaped teeth for eating small fish and crustaceans, though sometimes the fish swallows them whole. Sawfishes breathe with two spiracles just behind the eyes that draw water to the gills. The skin is covered with tiny dermal denticles (skin-teeth) that gives the fish a rough texture. Sawfishes are usually light grey or brown, the Australian Smalltooth Sawfish (Pristis pectinata) appears olive green. Like other elasmobranchs, sawfishes lack a swim bladder and use a large, oil-filled liver instead to keep them buoyant. Their skeleton is made of cartilage. The eyes on a sawfish are undevelopped due to their muddy habitat. The rostrum is the main sensory device. The intestines are shaped like a corkscrew (tool), called a spiral-valve. Sawfishes can range anywhere from 1.4 metres (Queensland Sawfish or Dwarf Sawfish - Pristis clavata) to over 7 metres (Pristis microdon).

Location and Habitat

Sawfishes are found in tropical and sub-tropical areas, and frequently swim far into rivers. They are also found in Headlands-and-bays and estuaries. There are 7 or 8 species of sawfish, depending on classification. 5 dwell in Australia. The other species can be found near Florida and the waters of southern United States. Sawfishes live only in shallow, muddy water and can be found in both freshwater and saltwater. Most prefer river mouths and freshwater systems. All sawfishes have the ability to traverse between fresh and saltwater, and often do so.


Not much is known about the reproduction habits of the sawfish. Each individual lives around 25 to 30 years, and matures at 10 years. Females give live birth to pups, whose semi-hardened rostrum is covered with a rubbery envelope. This prevents the pup from injuring its mother during birth. The rubbery envelope will eventually dissintegrate and fall off. The sawfish is estimated to mate once every two years, with an average litter of around 8 pups.


Sawfishes are nocturnal, usually sleeping during the day, hunting at night. Despite fearsome appearances, they are gentle fishes and will not attack humans unless provoked or surprised. The Smalltooth Sawfish is well known by fishermen as a prize game fish because of the fight it puts up once hooked. Capturing sawfishes is illegal in the United States and Australia.


Australian sawfishes: Pristis microdon - Freshwater Sawfish: Inhabits freshwater systems and have been found deep inland. Largest Australian freshwater fish. Pristis zijron - Green Sawfish: Prefers muddy bays and estuaries. Most common sawfish. Pristis clavata - Queensland Sawfish or Dwarf Sawfish: Also prefers muddy bays and estuaries. Lives along the northern coast of Australia. Relatively small compared to other species, only around 1.4m. Pristis pectinata - Smalltooth Sawfish or Wide Sawfish: Live in muddy areas, appears green or bluish-grey. Also lives in the Caribbean and around the African coastline. Anoxypristis cuspidata - Knifetooth Sawfish or Narrow Sawfish: Also lives in muddy areas, appears grey. Atlantic Species: Pristis perotteti - Largetooth Sawfish: Lives around the Caribbean and central american coastline. Seriously endangered in Central and South America, especially Lake Nicaragua. Pristis pristis - The Common Sawfish: Once plentiful in the eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, this species has become either critically endangered or is assumed extinct.


All species of sawfishes are considered endangered, or critically endangered. Their main reason of death is bycatch by fishing nets, as their snouts often entangle them. The rostrum is also prized as a curiosity, and the fins eaten as delicacies, or as medicine. Their liver oil is also of importance to humans. Loss of habitat is another threat to sawfish conservation. Sawfishes are illegal to capture in the United States and in Australia. The sale of the Smalltooth Sawfish rostra is prohibited in the United States llegal under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), the others however, are not. This is due to the fact that most rostra on the American market is from the Smalltooth Sawfish. Very few laymen can differentiate the species which the rostra originated. It is generally advised not to purchase sawfish rostra. Pristidae are difficult to conserve in aquariums because it appears they may require a blend of saltwater and freshwater to stay healthy, but the amount and duration of exposure are uncertain.


Sawfish - Sharks with swords
Unique Australian Animals - Sawfish

Friday, February 10, 2006


BEGIN Project Album infobox (scroll down to edit main article text) > WHO2
Please add art cover >
Album by The Who
Released 2005
Recorded 2004
Musical genre Rock music
Length ?? minute ?? second
Record label ?
Record producer ?
Professional reviews
Allmusic.com ? stars out of 5 ?
The Who Chronology - Thirty Years of Maximum R&B (1994) WHO2 (2005) END Project Album infobox > WHO2 is the working name for a new compact disc by The Who, tentatively scheduled to be released in 2005. WHO2 will be the first album by the band since 1982. The only original members in the band are Pete Townshend and Roger Daltrey, as Keith Moon died in 1978 and John Entwistle died in 2002. Their places are currently being filled by Zak Starkey and Pino Palladino respectively. Starkey has been playing with The Who since 1996. His drumming is very similar to Keith Moons, even though his father is Ringo Starr, drummer for the Beatles. This may be because Keith Moon gave him drum lessons when Starkey was a child. Palladino had worked on some of Pete Townshends solo projects. When Entwhistle died unexpectedly on the eve of the Whos 2002 tour of the United states, Palladino was called in, and the new group were performing within days. The track listing of the album is unknown, but will most likely feature two songs written by Townshend and released in early 2004: Real Good Looking Boy and Old Red Wine. A song called Certified Rose written by Roger Daltrey was supposedly rehearsed at the warmup for the 2002 tour and could possibly appear on the album as well. The Who plan to tour after the album is released.


Bernhard Rudolf Abelen (born December 1 1780 in Osnabr�ck, died February 24 1866) was a Germany philologist and literature historian. After finishing his college in 1799, Abelen went to the University of Jena to study theology, and also began with philosophy and general studies. While in Jena, he often visited the house of Johann Jakob Griesbach where he had the opportunity to meet with famous German poets. This led him soon to abandon his initial career aspiration and to engage in newer literature and general education. In 1802, he became teacher in the house of minister von der Recke Georg Peter Magnus von der Recke? > In 1808 he went to Weimar to educate Schillers children. In 1810 he became vice headmaster at the college of Rudolstadt. Five years later, he answered the call to the college of Osnabr�ck, where he became headmaster in 1841. Abalen retired in 1863, but nevertheless continued to teach about Sophocles and Cicero till his death in 1866. Bernhard is the father of two famous sons, Hermann Abelen and Wilhelm Ludwig Abelen.


Beitr�ge zum Studium der g�ttlichen Com�die Dantes, 1826
Cicero in seinen Briefen, 1835
Ein St�ck aus Goethes Leben, 1848
Goethe in den Jahren 1771-75, 1861
editor of the complete edition of the works of Justus M�ser, 1842-43


Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie - online version

Thursday, February 09, 2006


Metroad 4 or M4 is one of Sydney, Australia Metroad. It connects the Inner-West-(Sydney) of Sydney with the outer western suburbs. It mostly follows what was previously Great Western Highway from the Metroad 2 in the central business district, west to the Great Western Highway (Route 32) at Lapstone. Metroad 4 changes names several times as it passes through the city. Its names from the CBD to Lapstone are (bold are motorway grade): Western Distributor, Victoria Road, The Crescent, City West Link Road, Dobroyd Parade, Wattle Street, Parramatta Road, Western Motorway. M4 is tolled near Silverwater and before Parramatta. M4 consolidates the previous stretches State Route 40 and National Route 32.

M4 East

An major extension to the M4 has been proposed and has well-advanced plans. This extension would extend the M4 beyond its current end in Strathfield, New South Wales by approximately 5 kilometers, so that it would subsequently end in Ashfield, New South Wales and be continuous with the City West Link. Further planned upgrades to the City West Link would mean commuters going west out of the city could get to Parramatta without passing through traffic lights.


Lighthouse was a Canada rock band formed in 1969 in Toronto which included horn (instrument)s, string instruments and vibraphone. The bands music included elements of rock music, jazz and classical music.. The founding members were Skip Prokop on drum kit, Ralph Cole on electric guitar and Paul Hoffert on musical keyboards. The band also included Howard Shore on saxophone and Grant Fullerton on bass guitar. There were 13 members in all in the original lineup. Bob McBride replaced Pinky Dauvan on vocals in 1970. The group performed at the Monterey Jazz Festival, the Newport Jazz Festival and the Isle of Wight Festival 1970. They received Juno Awards in 1971, 1972 and 1973, when they were awarded Group of the Year. The band toured with the Royal Winnipeg Ballet production Ballet High. The band lost key members in 1973 and 1974 and finally broke up in 1976 but reunited for a series of shows in Toronto in 1982. They had Top 40 hits with songs One Fine Morning and Sunny Days.

Selected Discography

One Fine Morning (1970)
Thoughts of Moving On (1971)
Lighthouse Live (1972) (recorded live at Carnegie Hall)
Sunny Days (1972)
Can You Feel it (1973)
Best of Lighthouse (1974)

Wednesday, February 08, 2006


rules of construction is a term used to distinguish the rules of statutory interpretation from any other rules or aids. Note the use of the word construction which in a legal context means the same as interpreation. It is important to realise that not only are these rules not binding, they are really different methods of approaching the interpretation of statutes (instead of aids or guidelines).


1.1 Meaning of the Rule Words must be given their plain, ordinary and literal meaning. If the words are clear, they must be applied, even tough the intention of the legislator may have been different or the result is harsh or undesirable. An explanation of the rule was given in the sussex peerage case(1844) 1 c1 &fin 85: The only rule for construction of Acts of Parliament is that they should be construed according to the intent of the Parliament which passed the Act. If the words of the Statute are in themselves precise and unabiguous, then no more can be necessary than to expound those words in that natural and ordinary sense. The words themselves alone do, in such a case, best declare the intetion of the law giver. This is the odelst of the rules and it is still popular today. 1.2 problems with the Rule Another reason for the popularity of this rule is that judges are not supposed to make law. There is always the danger that a particular interpretation may be the equivalent of making law, and therefore some judges prefer to stick to the literal rule so as to avoid this danger. However, the irony of this rule is that its very use may defeat the intetion od Parliament. For instance, in the case of Whiteley v. chappel(1868) LR 4 QB 147 the court came to the reluctant conclusion that Whiteley could not be convicted of impersonating any person etitled to vote at an election, because the person he impersonated was dead, and on a literal construction of the relevant statutory provision, the deceased was not a person entitled to vote. This surely cannot have been the intetntion of Parliament. However, the literal rule does not take into account the consequences of a literal interpretation, only wheter words have a clear meaning which makes sense in that context. If Parliament does not like the literal interpretation, then it can always amend the legislation. 2. THE GOLDEN RULE (WORDS TO BE TAKEN IN ORDINARY SENSE) 2.1 Meaning of the Rule The golden rule is an adaption of the literal rule. It provides that words should be given their ordinary meaning as far as possible, but only to extend that they do not produce an absurd or totally obnoxious result:... the grammatical and ordinary sense of the words is to be adhered to, unless that would lead to some absurdity or inconsistency with the rest of the instrument, in wich case the grammatical and ordinary sense of the words may be modified, so as to avoid that absordity or inconsistency, but not farther. (Lord Wensleydale in Grey v. Pearson (1857) 6 HL CAS 61) This rule may be used in two ways 2.2 Use of the Rule The golden rule is applied most frequently in a narrow sense where there is some ambiguity or asurdity in the words themselves. For example, imagine you see a sign saying Do not use lifts in case of fire If you interpret this sign literally you will never use the lifts just in case there is a fire. 2.3 Other Use of the Golden Rule The second use of the golden rule is in a wider sense, to avoid a result which is obnoxious to principles of public policy, even where words have only one meaning. In Re v. Sigsworth 1935 Ch 89 the court decided that a son who had murdered his mother could not inherit her estate unders. 46 of the Administration of Estates Act 1925, even though there was only one literal interpreation of the word issue used ins. 46. 3. THE MISCHIEF RULE (ASCERTAINING THE LEGISLATORS INTENTION) 3.1 Meaning of the Rule Mischief is itself a good example of a word having more than one meaning. The original meaning which is the one intended here, was harm or Wrong. The court considers what mischief the statute was inteded to remedy in the light of four principles: (a) What was the law before the statute was passed (i.e. common law)? (b) What was the mischief and defect which was not remedied by the existing law? (c) What remedy did Parliament propose to put it right? (d) What is the true reason for the remedy? 3.2 Use of the Rule This rule is of narrower application than the first two rules, in that it can only be used to interpret a statute and, strictly speaking, onley where the statute was passed to remedy a defect in the common law. However one could argue that every statute passed for a reason, and that therefore the rule coud be applied to any statute. 4. THE PURPOSIVE APPROACH: LEGISLATION IMPLEMENTING EUROPEAN COMMUNITY LAW Under the European Communities Act 1972, the court must adopt a purposive approach in construing legislation which implements EC law. It essentially means that the court interprets legislation in the light of the purpose behind that legislation. European Community legislation is drafted in a very different way from English statutes. It follows the civil law tradition, which favours simplicity of drafting and a high degree of abstraction, rather than the exhaustive appraoch adopted in the UK. This means that a purposive approach is vital whan interpreting legislation, so that questions of wide economic or social aims are often considered by the courts. In Litster v. Forth Dry Dock and Engineering Co. Ltd 1989 1 ALL ER 1134, employees were dismissed one hour before a business was transferred to a new owner. The employees claimed they were unfairly dismissed. Regulation 5 of the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 1981 (SI 1981 No. 1794) (a statutory instrument which implemented an EC Directive), provided that The House of Lords read in the additional words or would have been so employed if he had not been unfairly dismissed before the transfer for a reason connected with the transfer. This was necessary to achive the purpose of the EC Direvitve, which was to protect the employees on the transfer of a business. Altough this could not have been achieved using the literal rula, a similar result could have been Achieved using the mischief rule or, probably, the golden rule. That is to say that one hour could still habe been interpreted as immediately before the transfer. The purposive approach is a feature of the reasoning of the European Court of Justice. Because decisions of the European Court of justice are binding in the UK, its rules of legal reasoning are of increasing importance in the legal system of the UK and have an indirect influence on interpretation, even where the legislation does not originate from the European Community.


Right Now is a bi-monthly British political magazine. It reflects right wing, particularly Euronationalism views. The magazine aims to articulate unfashionable and politically incorrect ideas of all kinds. It has a wide range of contributors. The magazine has featured interviews with and articles by many leading politicians, thinkers and writers. These include Arthur Jensen, Jean-Marie Le Pen, Roger Scruton, Pat Buchanan, Peter Brimelow, Frederick Forsyth, Charles Moore, Garry Bushell, Alain de Benoist, and Samuel Francis. Robert Henderson is a typical contributor, he in 1995 became briefly notorious in the so-called Henderson affair (a furore over a magazine article Henderson wrote for Wisden Cricket Monthly attributing the poor performance of the England cricket team to its national and ethnic mix). In 2004 he wrote for Right Now on The position of minorities: the grim reality of diversity. Prominent Conservative politicians who have contributed to, or been interviewed by, Right Now include Norman Tebbit, Ann Widdecombe, John Redwood, Teddy Taylor, Teresa Gorman and Bill Cash. The magazine also features arts coverage and cultural criticism. There is an informative regular series called Writers of the Right covering forgotten figures such as Douglas Francis Jerrold, articles on political and historical topics, news of meetings and recipes. The journalist Michael Gove, the philosopher Anthony Flew and the economic policy expert Alfred Sherman were also closely linked to the magazine, at various times. It was launched in autumn 1993 as a quarterly publication. It is as of 2004 edited by Derek Turner, and published by Taki Theodoracopulos.

Political fallout

The magazine was singled out by then Foreign Secretary Robin Cook in 2000 in an attack on then Conservative Party (UK) leader William Hagues inability to contain extremists within the party. Andrew Hunter, a former Conservative MP who defected to Ian Paisleys Democratic Unionist Party, was removed from Iain Duncan Smiths campaign to lead the Conservative Party because of his patronage of Right Now. Hunter withdrew his support for the magazine after it printed a series of allegedly homophobic advertisements for the pressure group the Conservative Democratic Alliance, with which the magazine is closely linked.

Tuesday, February 07, 2006


align center Career align center
Ordered: 25 February 1988
Laid down: 30 May 1990
Launched: 7 September 1991
Commissioned: 14 November 1992
Status: Active in service
General Characteristics
Displacement: 9,600 tons (9,754 tonnes)
Length: 567 ft (172.8 m)
Beam: 55 ft (16.8 m)
Draught: 33 ft (10.1 m)
Propulsion: 4 � General Electric LM2500 gas turbines, 2 shafts, 80,000 shp (59,656 kw)
Speed: 30+ knots
Complement: 387 officers and enlisted
Armament: 2 x 61 cell Mk 41 vertical launch systems, 122 x RIM-67 SM-2, BGM-109 Tomahawk or RUM-139 VL-Asroc, 8 x AGM-84 Harpoon missiles
2 x 5 in, 2 x 25 mm, 2�4 x 12.7 mm guns, 2 x Phalanx CIWS
2 x Mk 46 triple torpedo tubes
Aircraft: 2 x SH-60 Sea Hawk helicopters
Motto: Key to Victory USS Vicksburg (CG-69) is a Ticonderoga class cruiser in the United States Navy. She is named for the Battle of Vicksburg fought during the American Civil War. NVR


Fictional Setting the World of Darkness In the World of Darkness (primarily in the Werewolf: The Apocalypse line), many of the basic spiritual conflicts arise from the interplay and opposition of the forces of creation, stasis, and destruction. These primal forces are embodied by three super-powerful and multi-faceted spiritual entities: The Wyld (Werewolf: the Apocalypse) (a force of chaotic creation), the Weaver (Werewolf: the Apocalypse) (a force of rigid stasis), and the Wyrm (Werewolf: the Apocalypse) (a force of corrupting destruction). These three form a pantheon called the Triat. Real-world parallels can be drawn with Hindu mythology. Dwelling in and eternally fighting for control of the Umbra (World of Darkness) (or spirit world), each member of the Triat stands at the head of a wildly diverse hierarchy of spirts. The Triat also has strong allies and influence among humanity and Earths supernatural population. The most strongly involved are the Werewolf: The Apocalypse and the Changing Breeds (World of Darkness), shapeshifters with strong ties to the spirit world. Mage: The Ascension of various factions also find themselves working to further the interests of the Triat (though mages most often view the Triat as primal forces, not discrete entities). In principle, the three members of the Triat were balanced with one another during mythic times. The Wyld would take the raw stuff of the universe and shape it chaotically, the Weaver would give those shapes structure and purpose, and the Wyrm would return things to their original formlessness, all acting as a cycle. According to Garou myth, the balance tipped in favor of the Weaver with the rise of civilization. In order to cripple the Wyrms ability to destroy the Weavers creations, it was trapped in a knot of the Pattern Web (the framework of reality built by the Weaver), where it went mad. From that point, the Wyrms objective was no longer the recycling of reality, but its absolute annihilation (perverting the Weavers works as much as possible in the process). The strain of the Wyrms newfound ambitions, even from its prison, drove the Weaver mad in its attempts to compensate for the damage. The Wyld, by definition was mad to begin with. This sickness of the spiritual world represents the greatest challenge to the spirit world (and spiritual aspects) of the World of Darkness. TOC

The Wyld

At once the most simply motivated and the least understood of the Triat, the Wyld is an unpredictable force that has little interest in hierarchies, fixed domains, or even names (Naming, according to myth, is a creation of the Weaver). At its most extreme it represents creative chaos unbridled by rules. At more subdued levels, however, it is associated with unntamed nature. As such, it does not so much create realms for itself as it brushes past places, objects, and beings, leaving its mark on them. In keeping with its total disinterest in civilization, its few servitors in the physical world (labeled Gorgons by the Garou) are wild animals blessed with unique abilities, acting as paragons of their species. Needless to say, no two Gorgons are alike, and many seem not to have a clear purpose - they simply exist. The Wyld may be the weakest of the Triat, due to its steady loss of raw materials at the hands of the Wyrm. It is difficult to assess the Wylds true nature, however, and as such impossible to make an accurate assessment of its power. It is certainly the case that the Wyld has the least influence on Earths material reality of the three.

The Weaver

According to Garou myth, the Weaver is responsible for three things inescapably associated with the rise of civilization: Dogma (the superior virtue of one idea over another), Science (the belief that there is a single objective truth for all aspects of reality), and Technology (the use of tools of increasing sophistication to enhance the abilities of an individual or group). Unlike the Wyld (which has no clear agenda) and the Wyrm (which is too schizophrenia to pursue a unified agenda), the Weaver pursues its agenda of rigid stasis (i.e. an enternally unchanging universe) with total clarity. To achieve its goals, the Weaver primarily relies on a vastly complex hierarchy of hyper-specialized spirits. These spirits engage in such diverse actions as calcification (transforming non-Weaver spirits into a part of the Pattern Web), conquest, and the subversion of existing resources and groups. Apart from the Technocracy (Mage: the Ascension) (who do not believe or even seriously suspect that the Weaver exists) no group in the World of Darkness is wholely dedicated to the Weavers goals. Many, however take advantage of those aspects of reality it claims as its own (the Glass Walkers (Werewolf: The Apocalypse) of the Garou being a good example). It has been hinted that the id of the Weaver (Autochthon), is a Primordial, in a connection with the Exalted (role-playing game) role-playing game. Because Exalted does not officially take place in the timeline of the World of Darkness, this may simply be a common theme used by the creators of both game lines at White Wolf Game Studio.

The Wyrm

Trapped in a prison since named Malfeas, the Wyrm has formed a microcosm of the Triat. The Wyrm within the Wyrm is the Defiler Wyrm, the face of corruption. The Weaver within the Wyrm is the Eater-of-Souls, the face of consumption. The Wyld within the Wyrm is the Beast-of-War, the face of calamity. The spiral-shaped labyrinth that the Black Spiral Dancers (Werewolf: the Apocalypse) follow to the heart of the Wyrm consists of various tests for each of these faces, and for lesser spirits (Urge Wyrms) that belong to each. Though the Weaver makes use of a powerful army of spirits in a manner similar to the Wyrm, it favors, more than the rest of the Triat, the subversion of existing entities. To this end, groups of shapeshifters (the Black Spiral Dancers), mages (the Nephandi), and Wraith: The Oblivion (Spectres), as well as entire human organizations (Pentex-(Werewolf:-The-Apocalypse)) have turned themselves over the Wyrm and represent many of its most powerful servitors. The Wyrm employs this strategy (a) because non-spirits do not have their nature written in stone, and are therefore easier to subvert and (b) because Earth as a physical domain is the Wyrms primary battleground. If Earth falls to the Wyrm, the spirit world (which reflects reality in large part) will fall as well.

Monday, February 06, 2006


Rodion Konstantinovich Shchedrin (born December 16, 1932) is a Russian composer. He was born in Moscow and studied at the Moscow Conservatory under Yuri Shaporin and Nikolai Myaskovsky. His early music is tonality, colourfully orchestration and often includes snatches of folk music, while some later pieces use aleatoric music and serialism techniques. Among his works are the ballets The Little Hump-backed Horse (1955), Carmen (1967, based on the opera Carmen by Georges Bizet), Anna Karenina (1971, on the novel by Leo Tolstoy), and Lady with a Lapdog (1985), the operas Not Only Love (1961), and Dead Souls (1976, after Nikolai Gogols novel), piano concertos, symphony, chamber music and piano music and other works.


XYY, or XYY syndrome, is a trisomy of the sex chromosomes in which a human male receives an extra XY sex-determination system in each cell (biology), hence having a karyotype of 47,XYY.


Physical traits

XYY syndrome typically causes no unusual physical features or medical problems. Persons with this syndrome may be slightly taller than average, or have more severe acne than normal. Skeletal malformations may also accompany XYY syndrome at a higher rate than in the general population. Several other physical characteristics, including large hands and feet, have been associated (although not definitively) with XYY syndrome. Any physical characteristics, however, are usually so slight that they are insufficient evidence to suggest a diagnosis. Most males with XYY syndrome have normal sexual development and are able to conceive children. Since there are no distinct physical characteristics, the condition usually is only detected during genetic analysis for other reasons.

Behavioral characteristics

There are reports that men with XYY syndrome may be more likely to have behavior problems, possibly due to a higher testosterone level, but these are usually avoided if the syndrome is detected early. There are also reports of learning disabilities and delayed speech.

Cause and prevalence

XYY syndrome is not inherited, but usually occurs as a random event during the formation of sperm cells. An error in cell division called nondisjunction can result in sperm cells with an extra copy of the Y chromosome. If one of these atypical reproductive cells contributes to the genetic makeup of a child, the child will have an extra Y chromosome in each of the bodys cells. In some cases, the addition of an extra Y chromosome occurs as an accident during cell division in early fetal development. The incidence of this condition is about one in 850 males.


public domain text from the NLM Genetics Home Reference at 47xyysyndrome.